What is shorthand and what is its scope

Shorthand

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What is shorthand and what is its scope
Longhand is an abbreviated emblematic jotting system that increases speed and brevity of jotting as compared to manuscript, a more common system of writing a language. The process of jotting in longhand is called print, from the Greek penmanships ( narrow) and graphein (to write). It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys ( short), and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys ( nippy, speedy), depending on whether contraction or speed of jotting is the thing. 
 
 Numerous forms of longhand live. A typical longhand system provides symbols or bowdlerizations for words and common expressions, which can allow someone well- trained in the system to write as snappily as people speak. Condensation styles are ABC- grounded and use different eliding approaches. Numerous intelligencers use longhand jotting to snappily take notes at press conferences or other analogous scripts. In the motorized world, several autocomplete programs, standalone or integrated in textbook editors, grounded on word lists, also include a longhand function for constantly used expressions. 
 Longhand was used more extensively in the history, before the invention of recording and dictation machines. Longhand was considered an essential part of secretarial training and police work and was useful for intelligencers. (1) Although the primary use of longhand has been to record oral dictation or converse, some systems are used for compact expression. For illustration, healthcare professionals might use longhand notes in medical maps and correspondence. Longhand notes were generally temporary, intended either for immediate use or for latterly codifying, data entry, or ( substantially historically) recap to manuscript. Longer- term uses do live, similar as encipherment journals (like that of Samuel Pepys) are a common illustration. (2 

Classical antiquity

The foremost known suggestion of longhand systems is from the Parthenon in Ancient Greece, where amid-4th century BCE inscribed marble arbor was plant. This shows a jotting system primarily grounded on vowels, using certain variations to indicate consonants. (3) Hellenistic tachygraphy is reported from the 2nd century BCE onwards, however there are suggestions that it might be aged. The oldest datable reference is a contract from Middle Egypt, stating that Oxyrhynchos gives the"semeiographer"Apollonios for two times to be tutored longhand jotting. (4) Hellenistic tachygraphy comported of word stem signs and word ending signs. Over time, numerous syllabic signs were developed. 
 
 In Ancient Rome, Marcus Tullius Tiro (103 – 4 BCE), a slave and latterly a freedwoman of Cicero, developed the Tironian notes so that he could write down Cicero's speeches. Plutarch (c. 46 –c. 120 CE) in his" Life of Cato the Youngish" (95 – 46 BCE) records that Cicero, during a trial of some revolutionists in the chamber, employed several expert rapid-fire pens, whom he'd tutored to make numbers comprising multitudinous words in a many short strokes, to save Cato's speech on this occasion. The Tironian notes comported of Latin word stem bowdlerizations (notae) and of word ending bowdlerizations (titulae). The original Tironian notes comported of about 4000 signs, but new signs were introduced, so that their number might increase to as numerous as. In order to have a less complex jotting system, a syllabic longhand script was occasionally used. After the decline of the Roman Empire, the Tironian notes were no longer used to transcribe speeches, though they were still known and tutored, particularly during the Carolingian Renaissance. After the 11th century, still, they were substantially forgotten. 
When numerous friary libraries were brainwashed in the course of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, long- forgotten calligraphies of Tironian notes were rediscovered. 

Europe and North America

An interest in longhand or" short- jotting" developed towards the end of the 16th century in England. In 1588, Timothy Bright published his Characterie; An Arte of Shorte, Swifte and Secrete Writing by Character which introduced a system with 500 arbitrary symbols each representing one word. Bright's book was followed by a number of others, including Peter Bales'The Writing Schoolemaster in 1590, John Willis's Art of Stenography in 1602, Edmond Willis's An condensation of jotting by character in 1618, and Thomas Shelton's Short Writing in 1626 ( latterlyre-issued as Tachygraphy). 
 
 Shelton's system came veritably popular and is well known because it was used by Samuel Pepys for his journal and for numerous of his sanctioned papers, similar as his letter dupe books. It was also used by Sir Isaac Newton in some of his scrapbooks. (9) Shelton espoused heavily from his forerunners, especially Edmond Willis. Each consonant was represented by an arbitrary but simple symbol, while the five vowels were represented by the relative positions of the girding consonants. Therefore the symbol for B with symbol for T drawn directly above it represented" club", while B with T below it meant"but"; top-right represented"e", middle-right"i", and lower- right"o". A vowel at the end of a word was represented by a fleck in the applicable position, while there were fresh symbols for original vowels. This introductory system was supplemented by farther symbols representing common prefixes and suffixes. 
One debit of Shelton's system was that there was no way to distinguish long and short vowels or diphthongs; so the b-a-t sequence could mean" club", or" bait", or"bate", while b-o-t might mean" charge", or" bought", or" boat". The anthology demanded to use the environment to work out which volition was meant. The main advantage of the system was that it was easy to learn and to use. It was popular, and under the two titles of Short Writing and Tachygraphy, Shelton's book ran to further than 20 editions between 1626 and 1710. 
 
 Shelton's principal rivals were Theophilus Metcalfe's Stenography or Short Writing (1633) which was in its"55th edition"by 1721, and Jeremiah Rich's system of 1654, which was published under colorful titles including The penns dexterity compleated (1669). Another notable English longhand system creator of the 17th century was William Mason (fl. 1672 – 1709) who published Trades Advancement in 1682. 

 Headstone of Heinrich Roller, innovator of a German longhand system, with a sample of his longhand 
. Ultramodern- looking geometric longhand was introduced with John Byrom's New Universal Shorthand of 1720. Samuel Taylor published a analogous system in 1786, the first English longhand system to be used all over the English- speaking world. Thomas Gurney published Brachygraphy in themid-18th century. In 1834 in Germany, Franz Xaver Gabelsberger published his Gabelsberger longhand. Gabelsberger grounded his longhand on the shapes used in German cursive handwriting rather than on the geometrical shapes that were common in the English stenographic tradition. 

 Yiddish Longhand 
 
 Hebrew Longhand 
Taylor's system was supplanted by Pitman longhand, first introduced in 1837 by English schoolteacher Sir Isaac Pitman, and bettered numerous times since. Pitman's system has been used each over the English- speaking world and has been acclimated to numerous other languages, including Latin. ( citation demanded) Pitman's system uses a phonemic orthography. For this reason, it's occasionally known as penmanship, meaning" sound jotting"in Greek. One of the reasons this system allows fast recap is that vowel sounds are voluntary when only consonants are demanded to determine a word. The vacuity of a full range of vowel symbols, still, makes complete delicacy possible. Isaac's family Benn Pitman, who lived in Cincinnati, Ohio, was responsible for introducing the system to America. The record for fast jotting with Pitman longhand is 350 wpm during a two- nanosecond test by Nathan Behrin in 1922. (10) 
 
 Nathan Behrin wrote on Pitman longhand in 1914 
The candidate after high speed should devote himself to carrying a thorough mastery of the principles of his system of longhand. Not until the capability to write longhand without internal vacillation has been acquired should speed practice begin. 
 
 A pupil observing the note-taking of an educated stenographer will be struck with admiration at the smoothness of the jotting and the perfect chronicity of the outlines. An excellent system of practice for the suchlike installation is in the copying of a selection judgment by judgment until the total is learned, and also writing it over and over again. 
All notes taken at any speed should rigorously be compared with the published matter. It'll also be plant that numerous words are taken for others because of the forms they assume when written under pressure. Utmost of these can be avoided by careful attention to the jotting. Experience alone will authorize any divagation from the textbook- book forms. 
 
 Phrasing should be indulged in sparingly on strange matter. But on familiar matter, the pupil should always be alert for openings of saving both time and trouble by employing the principles of crossroad, elimination of consonants and the joining of words of frequent circumstance. 
 Nothing Lower than absolute delicacy should satisfy the pupil. Clashing outlines should be precisely distinguished. Where words may be distinguished either by the insertion of vowels or the changing of one of the outlines, the ultimate should always be the system employed; vowels should freely be fitted whenever possible. The sense of the matter should be precisely saved by the punctuation of the notes, indicating the full stop and leaving spaces in the notes between expressions. 
 
 The stylish matter of the for the pupil beginning practice for speed is to be plant in the dictation books collected by the publishers of the system. At first, the dictation should be slow to permit the timber of careful outlines. Gradationally, the speed should be increased until the pupil is obliged to ply himself to keep pace with the anthology; and sometimes, short bursts of speed should be tried as tests of the pen's progress. 
The pupil ambitious to succeed will endeavor to familiarize himself with all matters pertaining to print. By reading the longhand magazines, he'll keep himself in touch with the rearmost developments in the art. Installation in reading longhand will also be acquired by reading the longhand plates in these magazines. For comparison and suggestion, he'll study the facsimile notes of practical stenographers. He'll neglect no occasion to ameliorate himself in the use of his art. And eventually, he'll join a longhand society where he'll come in contact with other stenographers who are seeking toward the same thing as himself. (11) 
 
 In the United States and some other corridor of the world, it has been largely supplanted by Gregg longhand, which was first published in 1888 by John Robert Gregg. This system was told by the handwriting shapes that Gabelsberger had introduced. Gregg's longhand, like Pitman's, is phonetic, but has the simplicity of being" light- line."Pitman's system uses thick and thin strokes to distinguish affiliated sounds, while Gregg's uses only thin strokes and makes some of the same distinctions by the length of the stroke. In fact, Gregg claimed common authorship in another longhand system published in leaflet form by one Thomas Stratford Malone; Malone, still, claimed sole authorship and a legal battle replaced. (12) The two systems use veritably analogous, if not identical, symbols; still, these symbols are used to represent different sounds. For case, on runner 10 of the primer is the word d i m'dim'; still, in the Gregg system, the spelling would actually mean n u k or'nook'. (13) 
Japan 
 Our Japanese pen longhand began in 1882, scattered from the American Pitman-Graham system. Geometric proposition has great influence in Japan. But Japanese movements of jotting gave some influence to our longhand. We're proud to have reached the loftiest speed in landing spoken words with a pen. Major pen longhand systems are Shuugiin, Sangiin, Nakane and Waseda (a repeated vowel shown then means a vowel spoken in double- length in Japanese, occasionally shown rather as a bar over the vowel). Including a machine- longhand system, Sokutaipu, we've 5 major longhand systems now. The Japan Shorthand Association now has members. 
 
 — Tsuguo Kaneko (14) 
There are several other pen longhands in use (Ishimura, Iwamura, Kumassaki, Kotani, and Nissokuken), leading to a aggregate of nine pen longhands in use. In addition, there's the Yamane pen longhand (of unknown significance) and three machine longhands systems ( Speed Waapuro, Caver and Hayatokun or sokutaipu). The machine longhands have gained some ascendance over the pen longhands. (15) 
 
 Japanese longhand systems ('sokki' longhand or'sokkidou' print) generally use a syllabic approach, much like the common jotting system for Japanese (which has actually two syllabaries in everyday use). There are severalsemi-cursive systems. (16) Utmost follow a left-to- right, top-to- bottom jotting direction. (17) Several systems incorporate a circle into numerous of the strokes, giving the appearance of Gregg, Graham, or Cross's Miscellaneous longhand without actually performing like them. (18) The Kotani (aka Same-Vowel-Same- Direction or SVSD or V- type) (19) system's strokes constantly cross over each other and in so doing form circles. (20) 
Japanese also has its own similarly cursive form of writing kanji characters, the most extremely simplified of which is known as Sōsho. 
 
 The two Japanese syllabaries are themselves acclimated from the Chinese characters (both of the syllabaries, katakana and hiragana, are in everyday use alongside the Chinese characters known as kanji; the kanji, being developed in resemblant to the Chinese characters, have their own quiddities, but Chinese and Japanese ideograms are largely scrutable, indeed if their use in the languages aren't the same.) 
Prior to the Meiji period, Japanese didn't have its own longhand (the kanji did have their own abbreviated forms espoused alongside them from China). Takusari Kooki was the first to give classes in a new Western- stylenon-ideographic longhand of his own design, emphasis being on thenon-ideographic and new. This was the first longhand system acclimated to writing phonetic Japanese, all other systems previous being grounded on the idea of whole or partial semantic ideographic jotting like that used in the Chinese characters, and the phonetic approach being substantially supplemental to writing in general. ( Indeed moment, Japanese jotting uses the syllabaries to gasp or spell out words, or to indicate grammatical words. Furigana are written alongside kanji, or Chinese characters, to indicate their pronunciation especially in juvenile publications. Furigana are generally written using the hiragana syllabary; foreign words may not have a kanji form and are spelled out using katakana.) (21) 
 
 The new sokki were used to transliterate popular conversational story- telling theater (yose) of the day. This led to a thriving assiduity of sokkibon ( longhand books). The ready vacuity of the stories in book form, and advanced rates of knowledge (which the veritably assiduity of sokkibon may have helped produce, due to these being oral classics that were formerly known to utmost people) may also have helped kill the yose theater, as people no longer demanded to see the stories performed in person to enjoy them. Sokkibon also allowed a whole host of what had preliminarily been substantially oral rhetorical and narrative ways into jotting, similar as reproduction of shoptalk in exchanges (which can be plant back in aged gensaku literature; but gensaku literature used conventional written language in between exchanges, still 
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