Welcome to learn Pitman English course in Multan

Pitman shorthand

Welcome to learn Pitman English course in Multan


Pitman longhand is a system of longhand for the English language developed by Englishman Sir Isaac Pitman (1813 – 1897), who first presented it in 1837. (1) Like utmost systems of longhand, it's a phonetic system; the symbols don't represent letters, but rather sounds, and words are, for the utmost part, written as they're spoken. (2) 
 
 In the nineteenth century, what we (2021) would call longhand was appertained to as penmanship. It was first used by review journalists; journals transferred phonographers to cover important speeches, generally stating (as a claim of delicacy) that they had done so. The practice got public attention in 1858, during the Lincoln – Douglas Debates, taken down phonographically. The longhand was converted into words during the trip back to Chicago, where typesetters and telegraphers awaited them. 
Pitman longhand was the most popular longhand system used in the United Kingdom and the alternate most popular in the United States. (3) 
 
 One characteristic point of Pitman longhand is that unspoken and uttered dyads of sounds ( similar as/ p/ and/ b/ or/ t/ and/ d/) are represented by strokes which differ only in consistence; the thin stroke representing" light"sounds similar as/ p/ and/ t/; the thick stroke representing" heavy"sounds similar as/ b/ and/ d/. Doing this requires a jotting instrument responsive to the stoner's delineation pressure specialist root pens (with fine, flexible nibs) were firstly used, but pencils are now more generally used. 
Pitman longhand uses straight strokes and quarter- circle strokes, in colorful exposures, to represent consonant sounds. The predominant way of indicating vowels is to use light or heavy blotches, dashes, or other special marks drawn near to the consonant. Vowels are drawn before the stroke (or over a vertical stroke) if the vowel is pronounced before the consonant, and after the stroke (or under a vertical stroke) if pronounced after the consonant. Each vowel, whether indicated by a fleck for a short vowel or by a gusto for a longer, more drawn-out vowel, has its own position relative to its conterminous stroke ( morning, middle, or end) to indicate different vowel sounds in an unequivocal system. Still, to increase writing speed, rules of"vowel suggestion" live whereby the consonant stroke is raised, kept on the line, or lowered to match whether the first vowel of the word is written at the morning, middle, or end of a consonant stroke — without actually writing the vowel. This is frequently enough to distinguish words with analogous consonant patterns. Another system of vowel suggestion is to choose from among a selection of different strokes for the same consonant. For illustration, the sound"R"has two kinds of strokes round, or straight- line, depending on whether there's a vowel sound before or after theR. 
 
 There have been several performances of Pitman's longhand since 1837. The original Pitman's longhand had an" ABC"of consonants, which was latterly modified. Fresh variations and rules were added to consecutive performances. Pitman New Era (1922 – 1975) had the most advanced set of rules and condensation lists. Pitman 2000 (1975 – present) introduced some simplifications and drastically reduced the list of bowdlerizations to reduce the memory cargo, officially reduced to a list of 144 short forms. The after performances dropped certain symbols and introduced other simplifications to earlier performances. For illustration, strokes"rer" ( heavy twisted downstroke) and"kway" (hooked vertical straight stroke) are present in Pitman's New Era, but not in Pitman's 200 
History 
 Pitman was asked to produce a longhand system of his own in 1838. He'd used Samuel Taylor's system for seven times, but his symbols bear lesser similarity to the aged Byrom system. The first phonetician to construct a system of longhand, Pitman used analogous- looking symbols for phonetically related sounds. He was the first to use consistence of a stroke to indicate venting ( raised consonants similar as/ b/ and/ d/ are written with heavier lines than unspoken bones similar as/ p/ and/ t/), and consonants with analogous place of articulation were acquainted in analogous directions, with straight lines for plosives and bends for fricatives. For illustration, the dental and alveolar consonants are upright ⟨| ⟩ = / t/, ⟨| ⟩ = / d/, ⟨) ⟩ = / s/, ⟨) ⟩ = / z/, ⟨ (⟩ = / θ/ (as in ham), ⟨ (⟩ = / ð/ (as in thy). 
 
 Pitman's family Benjamin Pitman settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, in the United States and introduced Pitman's system there. He used it in the 1865 – 67 trial of the conspirators behind the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. In Australia the system was introduced by another Pitman family, Jacob. Jacob Pitman is buried in Rookwood Necropolis, Sydney. His obituary is written phonetically (4) 
 
 IN LUVING MEMERI OV JACOB PITMAN, BORN 28thNOV. 1810 AT TROWBRIDGE ENGLAND, SETELD IN ADELAIDE 1838, DEID 12TH MARCH 1890. ARKITEKT, INTRODIUST FONETIK SHORTHAND AND WOZ THE FERST MINISTER IN THEEZ KOLONIZ OV THE DOKTRINZ OV THE SEKOND OR NIU KRISTIAN CHURCH WHICH AKNOLEJEZ THE LORD JESUS CHRIST IN HIZ DEVEIN HIUMANITI AZ THE KREATER OV THE YUNIVERS, THE Deliverer AND REJENERATER OV MEN. GOD OVER AUL, BLESED FOR EVER. 
 
 At one time, Pitman was the most generally used longhand system in the entire English- speaking world. (5) Part of its fashionability was due to the fact that it was the first subject tutored by correspondence course. Moment in numerous regions ( especially theU.S.), it has been supplanted by Gregg longhand, developed by John Robert Gregg. Teeline has come more common in recent times, as it's grounded on spelling, rather than pronunciation. ( citation demanded) 
 

 Writing 

Welcome to learn Pitman English course in Multan


 Like Gregg longhand, Pitman longhand is phonemic with the exception of abbreviated shapes called colophons, the forms represent the sounds of the English word, rather than its spelling or meaning. Unlike Gregg it's also incompletely featural, in that dyads of consonsant phonemes distinguished only by voice are notated with strokes differing only in consistence. (6) There are twenty-four consonants that can be represented in Pitman's longhand, twelve vowels and four diphthongs. The consonants are indicated by strokes, the vowels by interposed blotches. 
 
 Colophons ( Short Forms) 
 Pitman ShortForms.svg 
 
 Common words are represented by special outlines called colophons (or" Short Forms"in Pitman's New Era). Words and expressions which have similar forms are called grammalogues. Hundreds live and only a bitsy number are shown above. The shapes are written independently to show that they represent distinct words, but in common expressions ("you are","thank you",etc.) two or three colophons may be joined together, or a final film added to represent the. 
 

 Consonants 

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 PitmanConsonants.PNG 

 
 The consonants in Pitman's longhand are pronounced freak, pee, dee, tee, jay, chay, gay, kay, vee, eff, thee, ith, zee, ess, zhee, ish, em, el, en, shaft ar, ing, way, yay, and hay. When both an unspoken consonant and its corresponding raised consonant are present in this system, the distinction is made by drawing the stroke for the raised consonant thicker than the bone for the unspoken consonant. ( Therefore s is ⟨) ⟩ and z is ⟨) ⟩.) There are two strokes for r ar and shaft. The former assumes the form of the top right- hand quarter of a circle ( drawn top-down), whereas the ultimate is like chay ⟨/ ⟩, only less steep ( drawn bottom to top). There are rules governing when to use each of these forms. 

 

 Vowels

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 owels The long vowels in Pitman's longhand are/ ɑː/,/ eɪ/,/ iː/,/ ɔː/,/ oʊ/, and/ uː/. The short vowels are/ æ/,/ ɛ/,/ ɪ/,/ ɒ/,/ ʌ/, and/ ʊ/. The long vowels may be remembered by the judgment,"Pa, may we all go too?"/ pɑː| meɪ wiː ɔːl ɡoʊ tuː/, and the short vowels may be remembered by the judgment,"That pen isn't much good"/ ðæt pɛn ɪz nɒt mʌt͡ʃ ɡʊd/. 
 
 A vowel is represented by a fleck or a gusto, which can be written either smoothly or heavily depending on the vowel demanded. As this gives only four symbols, they can be written in three different positions – either at the morning, middle or end of a consonant stroke – to represent the 12 vowels. 
 
 The blotches and dashes representing long vowels are darker than the bones representing short vowels. For illustration, say is written as") •", but seh (if it did live) would be written as") ·"; see is written as").", but sih (if there were similar a word) would be written as").". 
 
 Another point of Pitman's longhand allows most vowels to be neglected in order to speed up the process of jotting. As mentioned over, each vowel is written next to the consonant stroke at the morning, middle or end of the stroke. Pitman's longhand is designed to be written on lined paper and when a word's first vowel is a" first position"vowel ( i.e. it's written at the morning of the stroke), the whole longhand figure for the word is written above the paper's ruled line. When it's a alternate position vowel, the figure is written on the line. And when it's a third position vowel it's written through the line. In this way, the position of the figure indicates that the first vowel can only be one of four possibilities. In utmost cases, this means that the first and frequently all the other vowels can be neglected entirely. 

 

 Diphthongs 

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 displaystyle ie;;; lor qquad oi;;; mathfrak 7 qquad ow;;;, corridor qquad ew;;;, cap displaystyle ie;;; lor qquad oi;;; mathfrak 7 qquad ow;;;, corridor qquad ew;;;, cap 
 
 There are four diphthongs in Pitman's longhand, representing/ aɪ/,/ ɔɪ/,/ aʊ/,/ juː/, as in the words"I enjoy Gow's music."The first three appear as small checkmarks; the"ew"sound is written as a small bow. Both"ie"and"oi"are written in first position, while"ow"and"ew"are written in third position. In the same way, the whole figure is placed above, on or through the paper's ruledline.However, a little film is added, If the diphthong is followed by a neutral vowel. 

 

 Other shapes 

 Circles 
 The circles are of two sizes – small and large. Small circle represents's' ( sing) and'z' ( aspect). A big circle represents'ses'and'swa'. the big circle comes originally in the stroke it represents'swa' ( reach, but not sway). Away it represents'ses'the vowel in the middle can be any of the vowel or diphthong ( extremity, heads and exercise). If the vowel is anything other than'e' also it must be represented inside the circle. 
 Circles 
 The circles are of two sizes – small and big. The small circle represents'st'and'sd' ( cost and grounded) – pronounced stee circle. The big circle represents'ster' ( master and masterpiece).'ster' circle doesn't come in the morning of a word (sterling). 
 Small hooks 
 At the launch. For straight strokes pee, freak, tee, dee, chay, jay, kay and gay the hook comes in both the sides of the stroke. Hook in clockwise direction represents'r'after the stroke ( charger, Nichrome, bigger). Hook incounter-clockwise direction represents'l' after the stroke (ply, amplify, angle). For twisted strokes eff, vee, ith, thee, ish, zhee, em, en, ing the hook is written in before the stroke is written and it represents'r'after the stroke ( other, measure, manner, every). 
 At the end. For straight strokes pee, freak, tee, dee, chay, jay, kay and gay the hook comes in both the sides of the stroke. Hook in clockwise direction represents'en'after the stroke ( train, chin, genuine). Hook incounter-clockwise direction represents'eff'or'vee'after the stroke (pave, shin, toughen). For twisted strokes eff, vee, ith, thee, ish, zhee, em, en, ing the hook is written in after the stroke is written and it represents'n' after the stroke ( men, thin). 
 Shun hook 
 The duck hook is written on the right hand side of a simple t, d orj. 
 
 The big hook after any stroke represents' duck','zhun'etc. ( emulsion, vision). 
 For straight strokes with original circle or circle or hook, the duck hook is written in contrary direction ( section). Depression and reduction have duck hooks in different directions. 
 For simple straight strokes, the duck hook is written in the direction contrary to the circumstance of the vowel. Caution and transaction have duck hooks in different directions. 
 For twisted strokes, the duck hook is written after the stroke, continuing the wind ( stir, notion). 
 To represent the sound s- duck as in conclusion, decision, musicianetc. a small circle and continued round to form a small hook is written. 
 

 Other hooks 

 Big hook for'wh'. The big hook in the morning of the stroke way represents'wh' ( gripe). 
 Hook before annex. The small hook before annex represents' way'before it ( well). The big hook before annex represents'wh'before it (while). --- 
 Halving and doubling 
 Numerous strokes (both straight and twisted) may be halved in length to denote a final"t"or"d". The halving principle may be combined with an original or final hook (or both) to make words similar as" trained" appear as a single short perpendicular light stroke with an original and final hook. There are some exceptions to avoid nebulous forms a straight-r stroke can not be halved if it's the only syllable, because that might be confused for some other short- form ( badge) conforming of a short-stroke mark in that direction ("and"or"should"). 
 

 Doubling of twisted strokes 

 Still, der, ture, If ter. There are exceptions to avoid nebulous forms for illustration," leader"isn't written as a doubled-l but as l plus a hooked-d representing"dr". (But,e.g.," latterly"is a doubled-l.) 
 Doubling of straight strokes 
 the doubling principle has an exception when"ter"etal., is anteceded by only a straight stroke. Doubling isn't employed in that case ( adulation). If it has further than one stroke before"ter"etal., or has a hook at the end (tender), or a joined diphthong (pewter), also the doubling principle is employed. 
 Cultural references 
 The promoter of DavidR. Palmer's novels Emergence and Tracking purportedly writes her journals in Pitman Shorthand, declaring it the" stylish, potentially fastest, most protean of colorful pen systems". 
 
 In the 2005 film interpretation of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, The Vogons use a blockier form of Pitman 2000. (7) 
 
 Linguist Henry Sweet dubbed Pitman's Shorthand"Pitfall Shorthand"in his 1892 Manual of Current Longhand. (8) 

 In the prolusion to his play Pygmalion, George Bernard Shaw cites Henry Sweet's"Pitfall Shorthand" comment. (9) 
 
 The Christian spiritual textbook"My Utmost for His Loftiest" was firstly copied down byRev. Oswald Chambers’ woman, Gertrude"Biddy"Chambers, in Pitman Shorthand. 
 
 In McDonald & Dodds, season 1 occasion 2, the victim scribbles a note on the reverse of a door in Pittman Shorthand which DS Dodds recognizes as meaning Thirteenth Step. 
 
 An illustration of a intelligencer's use of Pitman Shorthand can be plant in The Guardian review's GNM Archive, Clyde Sanger scrapbooks, bestowed to the library in 2018, (10) and presently ( late 2020) witnessing a recap process. (11) 

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